Schemas, Dysfunctional Attitudes, & Voices

  1. The individual forms negative schemas, which can be uncovered by testing the self-concept and dysfunctional beliefs.
  2. The negative self-concept, at some point, provides the content for the voices.
  3. The negative self-concept is represented in the defeatist beliefs.
  4. The appearance of defeatist beliefs and the experience of voices can appear concomitantly or separately.
  5. The negative self-concept, in any event, comes first and to provide the content of the voices and the negative beliefs.
  6. The negative self-concept can be viewed as a schema or a series of interlocking schemas, which, like other schemas, can carry an activation charge from totally inactivated to activated.
  7. When particular precipitating events occur (Cannon et al.; van der Gaag study), the schemas become hyper-activated and produce the typical self-critical voices.
  8. When the schemas are fully activated the voices and delusions become paramount. 
  9. The defeatist and asocial attitudes are also embedded in the schemas and are transformed into voices, such as “You can’t do anything right,” “You are stupid and inadequate.”
  10. Test of theory: activate the dysfunctional attitudes and determine whether self-critical voices are either activated or accentuated.