The Cognitive Triad-Theory of Modes

1.The Cognitive Triad, originally proposed for depression, can be used to formulate the beliefs driving appraisals, motivation, and performance across non-clinical, as well as clinical populations (including schizophrenia).

2.The view of the self:

a.View of the outside world in broad terms: threatening or benevolent. b.Global view of the outside world vs. challenge from a specific task.

c.View of future in:

i. Broad terms: whether favorable or unfavorable

ii.Specific terms: likelihood to succeed or fail on a specific task. Cross benefit analysis of expectation analogy.

3.Research on performing specific neurocognitive or learning tasks has shown the influence of the triad on task performance. For example, if the individual perceives the self as an inadequate or worthless, the task as meaningless or enjoyable, then the outcome is either failure or success. The individual will or will not be motivated, and expends the effort to the task.

4.Also involved is the expectancies of success or failure and a sense of the availability of resources to do the task.

5. Application to our program:

a.We initiate our contact with the individual by getting him/her engaged in a pleasurable activity. This can activate the hidden positive beliefs and deactivate the negative beliefs. When the positive goes up, the negative goes down and vice versa. An example of some positive beliefs might be, “there is pleasure available,” or “other people can like me.” Clinically, there is a shift in the balance from the negative schemas to the positive schemas and beliefs.

b.Once the positive schemas have been activated, we try to enhance/prolong the degree of activation through our treatment plan. Of course, we find that at the beginning, the activation is not durable and the negative schemas become reactivated. But, over time, the activation of the positive schemas becomes more durable, and the negative schemas become attenuated.

6.The availability of resources seems to be dependent on expectancies (measured by defeatist attitude scale, or other scales).

7.Loss of Investment in the Positive Components of Personality

a.Those aspects of the cognitive triad that endow the individual with personhood are, to a large degree, diminished.

b.The individual’s loss of investment in the self is experienced as a loss of seeking satisfaction, self-development, etc.

c.Loss of investment in the outside world is expressed as a loss of interest in other people, a loss of interest in the future expressed as a loss of purpose, and a lack of any goals.

8.Theory of Modes and Self-Concept: Negative Mode

a. This mode can be thought of as a kind of mortar board, with tracks leading from the negative triad to the observable behavior and the inferred motivation.

b. Symptom:

i. Inability to be motivated/inactivity-Loss of motivation is expressed in reduction of adaptive behavior

ii.Anhedonia-View of self-incapable of getting rewarding things, view of outside world-pleasureless, view of future (expectancies): measured by Horan scale (Horan, Green, Kring, & Nuechterlein, 2006)-> anhedonia

iii. Asociality-View of self-socially incompetent, View of outside world-rejecting, view of future (expectancy): others will be rejecting/no fun with others-> asociality

iv.Loss of expressive behaviors-View of self-broken, view of outside world-pleasureless, view of future (expectancy): no fun-> automatic loss of vestment in expressive behaviors (alogia, blank affect, and communicative behaviors)

9.Switch to Adaptive Modea.Change of Cognitive Triad fromnegative to positivei.View of self-capable, worthwhileii.View of future-tasks are doable iii.View of outside world-receptive

10.The Shift from the Negative to the Adaptive Mode involves an increased investment in the self, purpose, and access to resources.

11.Measures used to assess the preceding constructs: Self-Concept Test, Motivation Test, Effort Test, Expectancy Test, and Access to Resources Test.