A Holistic (Integrated) Model of Disorders

In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the presence of depression in schizophrenia and at the same time, there has been a strong interest in identifying various functions that are presumed to be defective in schizophrenia. In this memorandum, I will attempt first to a) show how these different functions are represented […]

Simple Guide for CT-R of Negative Symptoms

I have listed below the strategies and techniques that are used for each of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia. While there is a considerable crossover of the techniques and the symptoms, this is a simple guide for beginners. It is important to clarify that CT-R itself is much broader and encompasses many facets which will […]

The Empirical Model Vs. The Therapeutic Model

Problem:Cognitive therapy or Cognitive Behavior Therapy has taken on the reputation as being manualized, sterile, mechanical, inflexible, etc. This may be due in part to the methods that are utilized to train therapists in this modality, namely through manuals /protocols for academic research. While randomized controlled trials should certainly be given appropriate credit for validating […]

“It means a lot that you Believe in me”

Years ago I asked many of the individuals with whom I worked with “What accounted for your improvement in treatment?” Not infrequently, instead of attributing their improvement to the therapeutic strategies, they would often come up with something like “You believed in me” as the vital factor. As I have mentioned in the past, it […]

Setbacks, relapses, and resilience

How often have we observed an individual who is well on his/her way towards the path of recovery who then experiences an unforeseen relapse in response to new challenges? When a setback occurs, the individual moves into the negative syndrome mode and the psychotic mode may be exacerbated. Consequently, the various systems ( cognitive, effective, […]

The Theory of modes

The theory of modes presented as a way of accounting for several questions, such as: how does the person adapt to the shifting situations? How does an individual flip from being withdrawn and hallucinating to being engaged and productive? A specific mode reflects the entire personal experience at a given time including the cognitive, affective, […]

Revival of Positive Memories, Interests and Competencies

The therapeutic strategy of reviving positive memories, interests, and skills serves a variety of purposes. First, the evocation of positive memories, past accomplishments and satisfactions serves to neutralize the negative self-esteem and facilitates the emergence of positive self-esteem. Secondly, the renewal of past interests and competencies helps to formulate aspirations and goals as well as […]

Recovery is a Process

Recovery is not only a destination but it is the entire evolution of steps along the pathway to this destination. In administrative terms, Recovery is successful integration into the community. Whereas in the CT-R clinician’s and individual’s terms, it is fulfillment and culmination of the aspirations. Clinically, Recovery involves a series of milestones which not […]

Meanings, Motivation & Affect

How many times have we observed individuals completing a pre-programmed set of activities and still appearing apathetic with flat affect? On the other hand, we have observed individuals becoming animated after getting out of bed or going for a walk. The difference in the impact of these different sets of activities is in the meaning […]


1. The “Call to Arms“ At one time I thought that words such as values etc. were either epiphenomena or just superficial froth, but now I believe that they are major motivators for action and can be tied into an individual’s aspirations. As an example, in the typical “call to arms”, the nation becomes mobilized […]