paradoxes in Schizophrenia

Someday schizophrenia will be understood in terms of its paradoxes. One paradox is that these individuals have a strong yearning for human contact, and particularly, doing things for other people and yet they spend most of their time in the withdrawn state, avoiding human contact and indeed being non-responsive to attempts by the staff to […]

Description of Modes Pt. I

As I have described previously, a mode is a state of the individual that is activated by and normally adapted to the specific situation. Thus, a passive-focused mode is activated while watching a movie in a theater whereas an active focused mode is activated when participating in a sport such as soccer or basketball. When […]

Cognitive Distortions in the Psychotic Mode: Part I

Until now, I have not written much about the psychotic mode. There arehowever a number of challenging questions which I would have to confront sooner or later. The first question has to do with the origins of biased beliefs. Does the content of an irrational belief have any relationship to what I have described previously […]

A Holistic (Integrated) Model of Disorders

In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the presence of depression in schizophrenia and at the same time, there has been a strong interest in identifying various functions that are presumed to be defective in schizophrenia. In this memorandum, I will attempt first to a) show how these different functions are represented […]

The Empirical Model Vs. The Therapeutic Model

Problem:Cognitive therapy or Cognitive Behavior Therapy has taken on the reputation as being manualized, sterile, mechanical, inflexible, etc. This may be due in part to the methods that are utilized to train therapists in this modality, namely through manuals /protocols for academic research. While randomized controlled trials should certainly be given appropriate credit for validating […]

“It means a lot that you Believe in me”

Years ago I asked many of the individuals with whom I worked with “What accounted for your improvement in treatment?” Not infrequently, instead of attributing their improvement to the therapeutic strategies, they would often come up with something like “You believed in me” as the vital factor. As I have mentioned in the past, it […]

Revival of Positive Memories, Interests and Competencies

The therapeutic strategy of reviving positive memories, interests, and skills serves a variety of purposes. First, the evocation of positive memories, past accomplishments and satisfactions serves to neutralize the negative self-esteem and facilitates the emergence of positive self-esteem. Secondly, the renewal of past interests and competencies helps to formulate aspirations and goals as well as […]

Recovery is a Process

Recovery is not only a destination but it is the entire evolution of steps along the pathway to this destination. In administrative terms, Recovery is successful integration into the community. Whereas in the CT-R clinician’s and individual’s terms, it is fulfillment and culmination of the aspirations. Clinically, Recovery involves a series of milestones which not […]

The Shift from Desensitization of the Negative to the Self-Actualization of the Positive

We have all noticed a trend in our work lately of shifting from a component analysis and systematic desensitization. This standard approach is geared toward removal of the negative variables such as inhibition that stand in the way of an individual achieving his/her objectives. The new emphasis is directed towards the discussion and visualization of […]

Utilizing Aspirations

The aspirations are a therapeutic modality in their own right. They not only serve as an organizing principle for charting one’s behavior, but can arouse and fortify the adaptive mode.Here are some steps I suggest for activating the aspirations. Please indicate your comments, corrections, and additions to each of the below statements. I intend this […]