MEMO: Theory of Modes PT II

“Two Wolves”: A Cherokee Legend An old Cherokee is teaching his grandson about life. “A fight is going on inside me,” he said to the boy. “It is a terrible fight and it is between two wolves. One is evil –he is anger, envy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, […]

Description of Modes Pt. I

As I have described previously, a mode is a state of the individual that is activated by and normally adapted to the specific situation. Thus, a passive-focused mode is activated while watching a movie in a theater whereas an active focused mode is activated when participating in a sport such as soccer or basketball. When […]

Intrusive Images

It occurred to me several years ago that it was odd that the imaginative apparatus utilized a sensory pathway, namely the vocal pathway for hallucinations but employed a strictly verbal pathway for the experience of delusions. A series of studies were conducted (one in which I participated in as an author) which found that intrusive […]

addition to positive versus negative values

We should distinguish values from aspirations. The values often represent the attitudes and feelings about the self, established by reaching an aspiration: pride, empowerment, understanding, usefulness, worth or the values may apply to more general ideas such as helping other people, gaining people’s respect, or receiving appreciation for what you do. A clue to important […]

Positive values vs. negative values

We find it important to determine the individual’s values, particularly when we talk to them about aspirations. This raises the question of what we mean by values. Often times an individual will attach high value to counterproductive activities such as drinking or using drugs. They might attach high value to beliefs such as “you need […]

Cognitive Distortions in the Psychotic Mode: Part I

Until now, I have not written much about the psychotic mode. There arehowever a number of challenging questions which I would have to confront sooner or later. The first question has to do with the origins of biased beliefs. Does the content of an irrational belief have any relationship to what I have described previously […]

The “Cognitive” in CT-R

When we enter a unit for the first time we notice that the people are relatively inactive. One person may be sitting in the corner hallucinating, another is fine on the couch, and the third person may be haranguing the nurses regarding medication. So we start to apply our Recovery Oriented Cognitive Therapy and low […]

A Holistic (Integrated) Model of Disorders

In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the presence of depression in schizophrenia and at the same time, there has been a strong interest in identifying various functions that are presumed to be defective in schizophrenia. In this memorandum, I will attempt first to a) show how these different functions are represented […]

Simple Guide for CT-R of Negative Symptoms

I have listed below the strategies and techniques that are used for each of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia. While there is a considerable crossover of the techniques and the symptoms, this is a simple guide for beginners. It is important to clarify that CT-R itself is much broader and encompasses many facets which will […]

The Empirical Model Vs. The Therapeutic Model

Problem:Cognitive therapy or Cognitive Behavior Therapy has taken on the reputation as being manualized, sterile, mechanical, inflexible, etc. This may be due in part to the methods that are utilized to train therapists in this modality, namely through manuals /protocols for academic research. While randomized controlled trials should certainly be given appropriate credit for validating […]