“It means a lot that you Believe in me”

Years ago I asked many of the individuals with whom I worked with “What accounted for your improvement in treatment?” Not infrequently, instead of attributing their improvement to the therapeutic strategies, they would often come up with something like “You believed in me” as the vital factor. As I have mentioned in the past, it […]

The Theory of modes

The theory of modes presented as a way of accounting for several questions, such as: how does the person adapt to the shifting situations? How does an individual flip from being withdrawn and hallucinating to being engaged and productive? A specific mode reflects the entire personal experience at a given time including the cognitive, affective, […]

Revival of Positive Memories, Interests and Competencies

The therapeutic strategy of reviving positive memories, interests, and skills serves a variety of purposes. First, the evocation of positive memories, past accomplishments and satisfactions serves to neutralize the negative self-esteem and facilitates the emergence of positive self-esteem. Secondly, the renewal of past interests and competencies helps to formulate aspirations and goals as well as […]

Recovery is a Process

Recovery is not only a destination but it is the entire evolution of steps along the pathway to this destination. In administrative terms, Recovery is successful integration into the community. Whereas in the CT-R clinician’s and individual’s terms, it is fulfillment and culmination of the aspirations. Clinically, Recovery involves a series of milestones which not […]

Meanings, Motivation & Affect

How many times have we observed individuals completing a pre-programmed set of activities and still appearing apathetic with flat affect? On the other hand, we have observed individuals becoming animated after getting out of bed or going for a walk. The difference in the impact of these different sets of activities is in the meaning […]


1. The “Call to Arms“ At one time I thought that words such as values etc. were either epiphenomena or just superficial froth, but now I believe that they are major motivators for action and can be tied into an individual’s aspirations. As an example, in the typical “call to arms”, the nation becomes mobilized […]

Positive/ Negative Expectancies and Dopamine

Individuals not infrequently use terms to describe themselves such as, “I am worthless…I am useless…etc.” These individuals apparently believe that they have no value. The whole concept of value is tied in with dopamine secretion and motivation in the literature. In addition, dopamine is apparently insufficient in certain regions of the brain of those with […]

The Shift from Desensitization of the Negative to the Self-Actualization of the Positive

We have all noticed a trend in our work lately of shifting from a component analysis and systematic desensitization. This standard approach is geared toward removal of the negative variables such as inhibition that stand in the way of an individual achieving his/her objectives. The new emphasis is directed towards the discussion and visualization of […]

Approaches to “Acting Out” Behavior

Acting out behavior (a term not used in the pejorative sense) refers to maladaptive behaviors’ ranging from self-mutilation, swallowing objects, cursing and striking out at other people, etc. This category of behaviors shares commonality in that their intended purpose is the attempted alleviation of distressing feelings through inflicting damage on one’s self or on another […]

Utilizing Aspirations

The aspirations are a therapeutic modality in their own right. They not only serve as an organizing principle for charting one’s behavior, but can arouse and fortify the adaptive mode.Here are some steps I suggest for activating the aspirations. Please indicate your comments, corrections, and additions to each of the below statements. I intend this […]