In a previous memo, I summarized the work of two English groups (Tony Morrison in Manchester and Dan Freeman in London) which showed in two separate studies that approximately 75% of individuals who acknowledge delusions also have imaginal intrusions detailing the content of the delusions. This represents a unique opportunity for clinicians to not only […]

Intrusive Images

It occurred to me several years ago that it was odd that the imaginative apparatus utilized a sensory pathway, namely the vocal pathway for hallucinations but employed a strictly verbal pathway for the experience of delusions. A series of studies were conducted (one in which I participated in as an author) which found that intrusive […]

Cognitive Distortions in the Psychotic Mode: Part I

Until now, I have not written much about the psychotic mode. There arehowever a number of challenging questions which I would have to confront sooner or later. The first question has to do with the origins of biased beliefs. Does the content of an irrational belief have any relationship to what I have described previously […]

A Holistic (Integrated) Model of Disorders

In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the presence of depression in schizophrenia and at the same time, there has been a strong interest in identifying various functions that are presumed to be defective in schizophrenia. In this memorandum, I will attempt first to a) show how these different functions are represented […]

Positive/ Negative Expectancies and Dopamine

Individuals not infrequently use terms to describe themselves such as, “I am worthless…I am useless…etc.” These individuals apparently believe that they have no value. The whole concept of value is tied in with dopamine secretion and motivation in the literature. In addition, dopamine is apparently insufficient in certain regions of the brain of those with […]

Approaches to “Acting Out” Behavior

Acting out behavior (a term not used in the pejorative sense) refers to maladaptive behaviors’ ranging from self-mutilation, swallowing objects, cursing and striking out at other people, etc. This category of behaviors shares commonality in that their intended purpose is the attempted alleviation of distressing feelings through inflicting damage on one’s self or on another […]