There are three types of motivation: Apparently spontaneous or automatic motivation stemming from the activation of the relevant schema (belief). A conscious, deliberate motivation emanating from a superordinate schema that has to do with the morality and/or appropriateness of the automatic motivation. The suppressing motivation draws on resources (see below) and is likely to be […]

Dealing with Symptoms Vs. Dealing with Personality

Originally, when I applied CT to psychosis, I was interesting in alleviating the psychotic symptoms. I therefore utilized the Socratic method of questioning the beliefs regarding the psychotic phenomena such as voices. For example, I would inquire as to what characteristics the voices had and I would discover say, that the voices were powerful. I […]

Old approach versus new approach

Our old approach, which probably resembles CBTp in a number of respects, concentrates on reflection and disqualification of the negative beliefs, especially those underlying the psychotic symptoms. Our new approach concentrates on building up positive beliefs that will fit into the broad categories of increasing self-confidence, improving self-empowerment and increasing hope as well as individual […]

Adaptive/Maladaptive Spectrum-Modes

As many of the team has pointed out, the individuals we are supervising may have a combination of adaptive and maladaptive features at any one time. In conceptualizing the individual at a given time, you might specify that the individual is in the more intense adaptive part of the spectrum or maladaptive or is completely […]

Theory of modes: part ii

While we live through a variety of circumstances in our daily lives, we find that we shift from one state to another depending upon the context. In adapting to these changing situations, we sit quietly with focused attention while attending a movie or shout and cheer in a ball game. Similarly, individuals with schizophrenia may […]

Attenuating Limited Cognitive Resources vs Expanding Cognitive Resources

A study by Cohen, Morrison, Brown, and Minor (2012) demonstrated that increasing cognitive load on an individual with schizotypy and diminished expression (blunted affect, etc.) showed expressive deficits. The clinical application would be that our negative symptom individuals (specifically, those with blunted affect) do worse when exposed to unacceptable stress, for example, demands regarding hygiene, […]

paradoxes in Schizophrenia

Someday schizophrenia will be understood in terms of its paradoxes. One paradox is that these individuals have a strong yearning for human contact, and particularly, doing things for other people and yet they spend most of their time in the withdrawn state, avoiding human contact and indeed being non-responsive to attempts by the staff to […]

MEMO: Responding to Stressors and Building Resilience

Throughout their lives, individuals have been subjected not only to an unusual amount of negative traumatic events, but also many minor stressors reflecting society’s attitude towards them as being “maladjusted”. The resulting impact of these major stressors and/or the accumulation of minor stressors on self-esteem is that these individuals develop a picture of themselves of […]